For the various vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. Arabic alphabet Arabic Braille Syriac alphabet (Garshuni) Hebrew alphabet (Judeo-Arabic languages) Greek alphabet (Cypriot Maronite Arabic) Latin script (Romanized Arabic alphabet, Maltese alphabet) (Maltese, Lebanese Arabic, Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
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Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages (Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Phoenician), the Ancient South Arabian languages, and various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic.
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By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.
In late pre-Islamic times, a transdialectal and transcommunal variety of Arabic emerged in the Hijaz which continued living its parallel life after literary Arabic had been institutionally standardized in the 2nd and 3rd century of the Hijra, most strongly in Judeo-Christian texts, keeping alive ancient features eliminated from the "learned" tradition (Classical Arabic).
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.
In Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested.
Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino).
Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish.
For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA.
It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula.
making it the fifth most spoken language in the world.