In the 1840s Turner reworked in oils a number of the images he had first created for the set of mezzotints known as Liber Studiorum (1807-19). 512 ) is a ‘P’ or ‘pastoral’ subject, Inverary Pier (No.
Though his Biblical or classical subjects were generally grouped in the Liber in a category defined as ‘Historical’, Turner also developed a type of refined pastoral landscape, which was conceived in the spirit of Claude Lorrain’s paintings. In addition all but three of the remaining paintings are of subjects that Turner classified as ‘E. 519) is an ‘M’ or ‘marine’ subject, while Europa and the Bull (No.
P.’, probably Epic, Elegant or Elevated Pastoral (see Finberg op.
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In the case of Landscape with a River and Bay in the Distance (No.
509), Chepstow Castle, which forms the main topographical motif of the Liber plate, ‘The Junction of the Severn and the Wye’, is omitted, but in two other cases, rather surprisingly, Turner makes the late oil more topographically specific than the Liber plate, Landscape with Walton Bridges (No. 518 [ or the British Institution before completing them on varnishing days; see in particular John Burnet's description of such unfinished pictures as being ‘divided into large masses of blue, where the water or sky was to come, and [with] the other portions laid out in broad orange yellow, falling into delicate brown where the trees and landscapes were to be placed’ (Burnet 1852, p. 84–5), and Rippingille's description of Turner at work on The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons at the British Institution in 1835 (see No. It has, however, been suggested that these works are more than just a random selection of late unfinished pictures. In addition, it has recently been discovered that the paintings from the series now in the Tate Gallery were painted on supplied by the firm of T.
Toompea Castle, situated on a crest on the edge of the Old Town, was built in 1219 by Danish invaders on the site of an ancient wooden fortress, dating from sometime in the ninth century.
The castle served as a seat of succession of foreign powers for seven centuries and since 1922 have housed the Riigikogu, Estonia’s parliament.
The mezzotint design that was the starting point for this late oil painting was one of these and deliberately paid tribute to Claude by reworking his celebrated Landscape with Psyche outside the Palace of Cupid (National Gallery). 514) is based on a detail of the frontispiece, which was not given a classification.
, roughly similar in size, style, colouring and degree of finish, is remarkable in being based largely on compositions used much earlier by Turner for the Liber Studiorum. The degree of dependence on the Liber model varies.
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