These each have 19 protons and 21 neutrons in their nucleus.
If one of these protons is hit by a beta particle, it can be converted into a neutron.
For more than three decades potassium-argon (K-Ar) and argon-argon (Ar-Ar) dating of rocks has been crucial in underpinning the billions of years for Earth history claimed by evolutionists. Lassen plagioclase, California (AD 1915) 0.11±0.03 Ma Sunset Crater basalt, Arizona (AD 1064-1065) 0.27±0.09 Ma; 0.25±0.15 Ma Akka Water Fall flow, Hawaii (Pleistocene) 32.3±7.2 Ma Kilauea Iki basalt, Hawaii (AD 1959) 8.5±6.8 Ma Mt.
Critical to these dating methods is the assumption that there was no radiogenic argon ( Hualalai basalt, Hawaii (AD 1800-1801) 1.6±0.16 Ma; 1.41±0.08 Ma Mt. Stromboli, Italy, volcanic bomb (September 23, 1963) 2.4±2 Ma Mt.
Etna basalt, Sicily (May 1964) 0.7±0.01 Ma Medicine Lake Highlands obsidian, Glass Mountains, California ( in the 1800-1801 Hualalai flow, Hawaii, resided in fluid and gaseous inclusions in olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxene in ultramafic xenoliths in the basalt, and was sufficient to yield "ages" of 2.6 Ma to 2960 Ma.
Further confirmation comes from diamonds, which form in the mantle and are carried by explosive volcanism into the upper crust and to the surface. obtained a K-Ar isochron "age" of 6.0±0.3 Ga for 10 Zaire diamonds, it was obvious excess was inherited from the mantle source areas of the magmas. Snelling, "Discordant Potassium-Argon Model and Isochron ' Ages' for Cardenas Basalt (Middle Proterozoic) and Associated Diabase of Eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona," in R.
As the K-40 in the rock decays into Ar-40, the gas is trapped in the rock.
In this simulation, a unit of molten rock cools and crystallizes. Note that time is expressed in millions of years on this graph, as opposed to thousands of years in the C-14 graph.
Thus under certain conditions Ar can be incorporated into minerals which are supposed to exclude Ar when they crystallize. envisage noble gases from the mantle (and the atmosphere) migrating and circulating through the crust, so there should be evidence of excess in crustal rocks and their constituent minerals could well be the norm rather than the exception.
Dalrymple, referring to metamorphism and melting of rocks in the crust, has commented: "If the rock is heated or melted at some later time, then some or all the In a recent study 128 Ar isotopic analyses were obtained from ten profiles across biotite grains in high-grade metamorphic rocks, and apparent Ar-Ar "ages" within individual grains ranged from 161Ma-514Ma.
Potassium (K) is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust (2.4% by mass).