Troughs were cast through displacement molding, while struts and tie beams were produced using conventional gravity two-stage castings.
Then, the right and left half-shells, along with the tie beams, were pre-assembled in the plant and transported to the site where they were lifted (by crane) over the railway tracks, for placement on the columns (Figure 3).
Although there are some codes and guidelines to help engineers to obtain this information, the acceptable criterion is the target reliability index, which is rarely used or defined in current codes.
The objective of the proposed session is to present the challenges and solutions using more rational reliability approaches in evaluating concrete structures.
Overall, this material offers solutions with advantages such as speed of construction, improved aesthetics, superior durability, and impermeability against corrosion, abrasion and impact—which translates to reduced maintenance and a longer life span for the structure.
Iowa’s Wapello County boasts the first ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) highway bridge in the United States, completed in May 2006.
“Guide to a Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Buildings,” ACI 314R-16 presents simplified methods and design techniques that facilitate and speed the engineering of low-rise buildings within certain limitations.
Material is presented in an order that follows typical design process with procedures introduced as the designer will need them in the course of a building design.
Papers on evaluation methods, prediction models, reliability analysis, and code calibration will be presented.
ACI Subcommittee 440-M, FRP-Repair of Masonry Structures, is sponsoring this technical session focusing on various applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems for masonry structures.
Table 1 summarizes test data from production of the twenty-four canopies.
The columns and half-shells were injection cast in closed steel forms (Figure 2).
The volume of material used totaled 105 cubic yards.